The main components of every orbital welding system are the power source and controller, the welding head and, where required, a wire feed mechanism. Welding of certain sizes and material types will also require the use of a water/coolant system. There are a large number of factors that can have an influence on the welding result. These aspects include the arc length, magnitude and pulse frequency of the welding current, welding speed, inert shielding gas, parent material, filler material, weld preparation, and thermal conductivity. Ultimately, a high quality weld is achieved through detailed knowledge of how to precisely adjust all these parameters for each individual welding task.