Chemically modified electrodes are different from other types of electrodes as they have a molecular monolayer or micrometers-thick layers of film made from a certainchemical (depending on the function of the electrode). The thin film is coated on the surface of the electrode. The outcome would be a modified electrode with special newchemical properties in terms of physical, chemical, electrochemical, optical, electrical, transport, and other useful properties.
CMEs and electrodes in general heavily depend on electron transport: A general term for electrochemical processes where the charge transports through the chemical films to the electrode. The term coverage is used to express the area-normalized in mol/m^2 of a specific type of chemical site in the thin chemical film in on the surface of the chemically modified electrode.